

I have a large pooled crosssection data set.
I would like to estimate/regress using spatial autocorrelation methods. I am assuming for now that spatial dependence is present in both the dependent variable and the error term.
My data set is over a period of 4 years, monthly data (54 periods). For this means, I've created a time dummy variable for each time period.
I also created a weight matrix using the functions "poly2nb" and "nb2listw".
Now I am trying to figure out a way to estimate my model which contains a really big data set.
Basically, my model is as follows: y = γD + ρW1y + Xβ + λW2u + ε
My questions are:
1) My spatial weight matrix for the whole data set will be probably a enormous matrix with submatrices for each time period itself. I don't think it would be possible to calculate this.
What I would like to know is a way to estimate each time dummy/period separately (to compare different periods alone). How to do it?
2) Which package to use: spdep or splm?
Thank you and best regards,
Robert
[[alternative HTML version deleted]]
_______________________________________________
RsigGeo mailing list
[hidden email]
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo

Administrator

On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
> I have a large pooled crosssection data set. I would like to
> estimate/regress using spatial autocorrelation methods. I am assuming
> for now that spatial dependence is present in both the dependent
> variable and the error term. My data set is over a period of 4 years,
> monthly data (54 periods). For this means, I've created a time dummy
> variable for each time period. I also created a weight matrix using the
> functions "poly2nb" and "nb2listw". Now I am trying to figure out a way
> to estimate my model which contains a really big data set. Basically, my
> model is as follows: y = γD + ρW1y + Xβ + λW2u + ε My questions are: 1)
> My spatial weight matrix for the whole data set will be probably a
> enormous matrix with submatrices for each time period itself. I don't
> think it would be possible to calculate this. What I would like to know
> is a way to estimate each time dummy/period separately (to compare
> different periods alone). How to do it? 2) Which package to use: spdep
> or splm? Thank you and best regards, Robert
Please do not post HTML, only plain text. Almost certainly your model
specification is wrong (SARAR/SAC is always a bad idea if alternatives are
untried). What is your crosssectional size? Using sparse kronecker
products, the "enormous" matrix may not be very big. Does it make any
sense using time dummies (54 x N x T will be mostly zero anyway)? Are most
of the covariates timevarying? Please provide motivation and use area
(preferably with affiliation (your email and user name are not
informative)  this feels like a real estate problem, probably wrongly
specified. You should use splm if time make sense in your case, but if it
really doesn't, simplify your approach, as much of the data will be
subject to very large temporal autocorrelation.
If this is a continuation of your previous question about using
selfneighbours, be aware that you should not use selfneighbours in
modelling, they are only useful for the GetisOrd local G_i^* measure.
Roger
>
> [[alternative HTML version deleted]]
>
> _______________________________________________
> RsigGeo mailing list
> [hidden email]
> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo
Roger Bivand
Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
https://orcid.org/0000000323926140https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en_______________________________________________
RsigGeo mailing list
[hidden email]
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo
Roger Bivand
Department of Economics
Norwegian School of Economics
Helleveien 30
N5045 Bergen, Norway


Dear Roger,
Thank you for your reply. I disabled HTML; my emails should be now in plain text.
I will give a better context for my desired outcome.
I am taking Airbnb's listings information for New York City available on: http://insideairbnb.com/getthedata.htmlI save every listings.csv.gz file available for NYC (201501 to 201909)  in total, 54 files/time periods  as a YYYYMMDD.csv file into a Listings/ folder. When importing all these 54 files into one single data set, I create a new "date_compiled" variable/column.
In total, after the data cleansing process, I have a little more 2 million observations.
I created 54 timedummy variables for each time period available.
I want to estimate using a hedonic spatial timedummy model the impact of a variety of characteristics which potentially determine the daily rate on Airbnb listings through time in New York City (e.g. characteristics of the listing as number of bedrooms, if the host if professional, proximity to downtown (New York City Hall) and nearest subway station from the listing, income per capita, etc.).
My dependent variable is price (log price, common in the related literature for hedonic prices).
The OLS model is done.
For the spatial model, I am assuming that hosts, when deciding the pricing of their listings, take not only into account its structural and location characteristics, but also the prices charged by near listings with similar characteristics  spatial
autocorrelation is then present, at least spatial dependence is present in the dependent variable.
As I wrote in my previous post, I was willing to consider the neighbor itself as a neighbor.
Parts of my code can be found below:
########
## packages
packages_install < function(packages){
new.packages < packages[!(packages %in% installed.packages()[, "Package"])]
if (length(new.packages))
install.packages(new.packages, dependencies = TRUE)
sapply(packages, require, character.only = TRUE)
}
packages_required < c("bookdown", "cowplot", "data.table", "dplyr", "e1071", "fastDummies", "ggplot2", "ggrepel", "janitor", "kableExtra", "knitr", "lubridate", "nngeo", "plm", "RColorBrewer", "readxl", "scales", "sf", "spdep", "stargazer", "tidyverse")
packages_install(packages_required)
# Working directory
setwd("C:/Users/User/R")
## shapefile_us
# Shapefile zips import and Coordinate Reference System (CRS) transformation
# Shapefile download: https://www2.census.gov/geo/tiger/GENZ2018/shp/cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k.zipshapefile_us < sf::st_read(dsn = "Shapefile", layer = "cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k")
# Columns removal
shapefile_us < shapefile_us %>% select(c(AFFGEOID10, GEOID10, ALAND10, AWATER10))
# Column rename: ZCTA5CE10
setnames(shapefile_us, old=c("ZCTA5CE10"), new=c("zipcode"))
# Column class change: zipcode
shapefile_us$zipcode < as.character(shapefile_us$zipcode)
## polygon_nyc
# Zip code not available in shapefile: 11695
polygon_nyc < shapefile_us %>% filter(zipcode %in% zips_nyc)
## weight_matrix
# Neighboring polygons: list of neighbors for each polygon (queen contiguity neighbors)
polygon_nyc_nb < poly2nb((polygon_nyc %>% select(borough)), queen=TRUE)
# Include neighbour itself as a neighbour
# for(i in 1:length(polygon_nyc_nb)){polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]=as.integer(c(i,polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]))}
polygon_nyc_nb < include.self(polygon_nyc_nb)
# Weights to each neighboring polygon
lw < nb2listw(neighbours = polygon_nyc_nb, style="W", zero.policy=TRUE)
## listings
# Data import
files < list.files(path="Listings/", pattern=".csv", full.names=TRUE)
listings < setNames(lapply(files, function(x) read.csv(x, stringsAsFactors = FALSE, encoding="UTF8")), files)
listings < mapply(cbind, listings, date_compiled = names(listings))
listings < listings %>% bind_rows
# Characters removal
listings$date_compiled < gsub("Listings/", "", listings$date_compiled)
listings$date_compiled < gsub(".csv", "", listings$date_compiled)
listings$price < gsub("\\$", "", listings$price)
listings$price < gsub(",", "", listings$price)
## timedummy
timedummy < sapply("date_compiled_", paste, unique(listings$date_compiled), sep="")
timedummy < paste(timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")
timedummy < gsub("", "_", timedummy)
## OLS regression
# Pooled crosssection data  Randomly sampled cross sections of Airbnb listings price at different points in time
regression < plm(formula=as.formula(paste("log_price ~ #some variables", timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")), data=listings, model="pooling", index="id")
########
Some of my id's repeat in multiple time periods.
I use NYC's zip codes to left join my data with the neighborhood zip code specific characteristics, such as income per capita to that specific zip code, etc.
Now I want to apply the hedonic model with the timedummy variables.
Do you know how to proceed? 1) Which package to use (spdep/splm)?; 2) Do I have to join the polygon_nyc (by zip code) to my listings data set, and then calculate the weight matrix "lw"?
Again, thank you very much for the help provided until now.
Best regards,
Robert
________________________________________
From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
Sent: Tuesday, November 5, 2019 15:30
To: Robert R
Cc: [hidden email]
Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
> I have a large pooled crosssection data set. I would like to
> estimate/regress using spatial autocorrelation methods. I am assuming
> for now that spatial dependence is present in both the dependent
> variable and the error term. My data set is over a period of 4 years,
> monthly data (54 periods). For this means, I've created a time dummy
> variable for each time period. I also created a weight matrix using the
> functions "poly2nb" and "nb2listw". Now I am trying to figure out a way
> to estimate my model which contains a really big data set. Basically, my
> model is as follows: y = γD + ρW1y + Xβ + λW2u + ε My questions are: 1)
> My spatial weight matrix for the whole data set will be probably a
> enormous matrix with submatrices for each time period itself. I don't
> think it would be possible to calculate this. What I would like to know
> is a way to estimate each time dummy/period separately (to compare
> different periods alone). How to do it? 2) Which package to use: spdep
> or splm? Thank you and best regards, Robert
Please do not post HTML, only plain text. Almost certainly your model
specification is wrong (SARAR/SAC is always a bad idea if alternatives are
untried). What is your crosssectional size? Using sparse kronecker
products, the "enormous" matrix may not be very big. Does it make any
sense using time dummies (54 x N x T will be mostly zero anyway)? Are most
of the covariates timevarying? Please provide motivation and use area
(preferably with affiliation (your email and user name are not
informative)  this feels like a real estate problem, probably wrongly
specified. You should use splm if time make sense in your case, but if it
really doesn't, simplify your approach, as much of the data will be
subject to very large temporal autocorrelation.
If this is a continuation of your previous question about using
selfneighbours, be aware that you should not use selfneighbours in
modelling, they are only useful for the GetisOrd local G_i^* measure.
Roger
>
> [[alternative HTML version deleted]]
>
> _______________________________________________
> RsigGeo mailing list
> [hidden email]
> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo
Roger Bivand
Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
https://orcid.org/0000000323926140https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en_______________________________________________
RsigGeo mailing list
[hidden email]
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo

Administrator

On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
> Dear Roger,
>
> Thank you for your reply. I disabled HTML; my emails should be now in
> plain text.
>
> I will give a better context for my desired outcome.
>
> I am taking Airbnb's listings information for New York City available
> on: http://insideairbnb.com/getthedata.html>
> I save every listings.csv.gz file available for NYC (201501 to 201909)
>  in total, 54 files/time periods  as a YYYYMMDD.csv file into a
> Listings/ folder. When importing all these 54 files into one single data
> set, I create a new "date_compiled" variable/column.
>
> In total, after the data cleansing process, I have a little more 2
> million observations.
You have repeat lettings for some, but not all properties. So this is at
best a very unbalanced panel. For those properties with repeats, you may
see temporal movement (trend/seasonal).
I suggest (strongly) taking a single borough or even zipcode with some
hindreds of properties, and working from there. Do not include the
observation as its own neighbour, perhaps identify repeats and handle them
specially (create or use a property ID). Unbalanced panels may also create
a selection bias issue (why are some properties only listed sometimes?).
So this although promising isn't simple, and getting to a hedonic model
may be hard, but not (just) because of spatial autocorrelation. I wouldn't
necessarily trust OLS output either, partly because of the repeat property
issue.
Roger
>
> I created 54 timedummy variables for each time period available.
>
> I want to estimate using a hedonic spatial timedummy model the impact of
> a variety of characteristics which potentially determine the daily rate
> on Airbnb listings through time in New York City (e.g. characteristics
> of the listing as number of bedrooms, if the host if professional,
> proximity to downtown (New York City Hall) and nearest subway station
> from the listing, income per capita, etc.).
>
> My dependent variable is price (log price, common in the related
> literature for hedonic prices).
>
> The OLS model is done.
>
> For the spatial model, I am assuming that hosts, when deciding the
> pricing of their listings, take not only into account its structural and
> location characteristics, but also the prices charged by near listings
> with similar characteristics  spatial autocorrelation is then present,
> at least spatial dependence is present in the dependent variable.
>
> As I wrote in my previous post, I was willing to consider the neighbor
> itself as a neighbor.
>
> Parts of my code can be found below:
>
> ########
>
> ## packages
>
> packages_install < function(packages){
> new.packages < packages[!(packages %in% installed.packages()[, "Package"])]
> if (length(new.packages))
> install.packages(new.packages, dependencies = TRUE)
> sapply(packages, require, character.only = TRUE)
> }
>
> packages_required < c("bookdown", "cowplot", "data.table", "dplyr", "e1071", "fastDummies", "ggplot2", "ggrepel", "janitor", "kableExtra", "knitr", "lubridate", "nngeo", "plm", "RColorBrewer", "readxl", "scales", "sf", "spdep", "stargazer", "tidyverse")
> packages_install(packages_required)
>
> # Working directory
> setwd("C:/Users/User/R")
>
>
>
> ## shapefile_us
>
> # Shapefile zips import and Coordinate Reference System (CRS) transformation
> # Shapefile download: https://www2.census.gov/geo/tiger/GENZ2018/shp/cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k.zip> shapefile_us < sf::st_read(dsn = "Shapefile", layer = "cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k")
>
> # Columns removal
> shapefile_us < shapefile_us %>% select(c(AFFGEOID10, GEOID10, ALAND10, AWATER10))
>
> # Column rename: ZCTA5CE10
> setnames(shapefile_us, old=c("ZCTA5CE10"), new=c("zipcode"))
>
> # Column class change: zipcode
> shapefile_us$zipcode < as.character(shapefile_us$zipcode)
>
>
>
> ## polygon_nyc
>
> # Zip code not available in shapefile: 11695
> polygon_nyc < shapefile_us %>% filter(zipcode %in% zips_nyc)
>
>
>
> ## weight_matrix
>
> # Neighboring polygons: list of neighbors for each polygon (queen contiguity neighbors)
> polygon_nyc_nb < poly2nb((polygon_nyc %>% select(borough)), queen=TRUE)
>
> # Include neighbour itself as a neighbour
> # for(i in 1:length(polygon_nyc_nb)){polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]=as.integer(c(i,polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]))}
> polygon_nyc_nb < include.self(polygon_nyc_nb)
>
> # Weights to each neighboring polygon
> lw < nb2listw(neighbours = polygon_nyc_nb, style="W", zero.policy=TRUE)
>
>
>
> ## listings
>
> # Data import
> files < list.files(path="Listings/", pattern=".csv", full.names=TRUE)
> listings < setNames(lapply(files, function(x) read.csv(x, stringsAsFactors = FALSE, encoding="UTF8")), files)
> listings < mapply(cbind, listings, date_compiled = names(listings))
> listings < listings %>% bind_rows
>
> # Characters removal
> listings$date_compiled < gsub("Listings/", "", listings$date_compiled)
> listings$date_compiled < gsub(".csv", "", listings$date_compiled)
> listings$price < gsub("\\$", "", listings$price)
> listings$price < gsub(",", "", listings$price)
>
>
>
> ## timedummy
>
> timedummy < sapply("date_compiled_", paste, unique(listings$date_compiled), sep="")
> timedummy < paste(timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")
> timedummy < gsub("", "_", timedummy)
>
>
>
> ## OLS regression
>
> # Pooled crosssection data  Randomly sampled cross sections of Airbnb listings price at different points in time
> regression < plm(formula=as.formula(paste("log_price ~ #some variables", timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")), data=listings, model="pooling", index="id")
>
> ########
>
> Some of my id's repeat in multiple time periods.
>
> I use NYC's zip codes to left join my data with the neighborhood zip code specific characteristics, such as income per capita to that specific zip code, etc.
>
> Now I want to apply the hedonic model with the timedummy variables.
>
> Do you know how to proceed? 1) Which package to use (spdep/splm)?; 2) Do I have to join the polygon_nyc (by zip code) to my listings data set, and then calculate the weight matrix "lw"?
>
> Again, thank you very much for the help provided until now.
>
> Best regards,
> Robert
>
> ________________________________________
> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
> Sent: Tuesday, November 5, 2019 15:30
> To: Robert R
> Cc: [hidden email]
> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>
> On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>
>> I have a large pooled crosssection data set. I would like to
>> estimate/regress using spatial autocorrelation methods. I am assuming
>> for now that spatial dependence is present in both the dependent
>> variable and the error term. My data set is over a period of 4 years,
>> monthly data (54 periods). For this means, I've created a time dummy
>> variable for each time period. I also created a weight matrix using the
>> functions "poly2nb" and "nb2listw". Now I am trying to figure out a way
>> to estimate my model which contains a really big data set. Basically, my
>> model is as follows: y = γD + ρW1y + Xβ + λW2u + ε My questions are: 1)
>> My spatial weight matrix for the whole data set will be probably a
>> enormous matrix with submatrices for each time period itself. I don't
>> think it would be possible to calculate this. What I would like to know
>> is a way to estimate each time dummy/period separately (to compare
>> different periods alone). How to do it? 2) Which package to use: spdep
>> or splm? Thank you and best regards, Robert
>
> Please do not post HTML, only plain text. Almost certainly your model
> specification is wrong (SARAR/SAC is always a bad idea if alternatives are
> untried). What is your crosssectional size? Using sparse kronecker
> products, the "enormous" matrix may not be very big. Does it make any
> sense using time dummies (54 x N x T will be mostly zero anyway)? Are most
> of the covariates timevarying? Please provide motivation and use area
> (preferably with affiliation (your email and user name are not
> informative)  this feels like a real estate problem, probably wrongly
> specified. You should use splm if time make sense in your case, but if it
> really doesn't, simplify your approach, as much of the data will be
> subject to very large temporal autocorrelation.
>
> If this is a continuation of your previous question about using
> selfneighbours, be aware that you should not use selfneighbours in
> modelling, they are only useful for the GetisOrd local G_i^* measure.
>
> Roger
>
>>
>> [[alternative HTML version deleted]]
>>
>> _______________________________________________
>> RsigGeo mailing list
>> [hidden email]
>> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo>
> 
> Roger Bivand
> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>

Roger Bivand
Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
https://orcid.org/0000000323926140https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en_______________________________________________
RsigGeo mailing list
[hidden email]
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo
Roger Bivand
Department of Economics
Norwegian School of Economics
Helleveien 30
N5045 Bergen, Norway


Dear Roger,
Many thanks for your help.
I have an additional question:
Is it possible to create a "separate" lw (nb2listw) (with different rownumbers) from my data set? For now, I am taking my data set and merging with the sf object polygon_nyc with the function "merge(polygon_nyc, listings, by=c("zipcode" = "zipcode"))", so I create a huge n x n matrix (depending of the size of my data set).
Taking the polygon_nyc alone and turning it to a lw (weights list) object has only n = 177.
Of course running
spatialreg::lagsarlm(formula=model, data = listings_sample, polygon_nyc_lw, tol.solve=1.0e10)
does not work ("Input data and weights have different dimensions").
The only option is to take my data set, merge it to my polygon_nyc (by zipcode) and then create the weights list lw? Or there another option?
Best regards,
Robert
________________________________________
From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
Sent: Wednesday, November 6, 2019 15:07
To: Robert R
Cc: [hidden email]
Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
> Dear Roger,
>
> Thank you for your reply. I disabled HTML; my emails should be now in
> plain text.
>
> I will give a better context for my desired outcome.
>
> I am taking Airbnb's listings information for New York City available
> on: http://insideairbnb.com/getthedata.html>
> I save every listings.csv.gz file available for NYC (201501 to 201909)
>  in total, 54 files/time periods  as a YYYYMMDD.csv file into a
> Listings/ folder. When importing all these 54 files into one single data
> set, I create a new "date_compiled" variable/column.
>
> In total, after the data cleansing process, I have a little more 2
> million observations.
You have repeat lettings for some, but not all properties. So this is at
best a very unbalanced panel. For those properties with repeats, you may
see temporal movement (trend/seasonal).
I suggest (strongly) taking a single borough or even zipcode with some
hindreds of properties, and working from there. Do not include the
observation as its own neighbour, perhaps identify repeats and handle them
specially (create or use a property ID). Unbalanced panels may also create
a selection bias issue (why are some properties only listed sometimes?).
So this although promising isn't simple, and getting to a hedonic model
may be hard, but not (just) because of spatial autocorrelation. I wouldn't
necessarily trust OLS output either, partly because of the repeat property
issue.
Roger
>
> I created 54 timedummy variables for each time period available.
>
> I want to estimate using a hedonic spatial timedummy model the impact of
> a variety of characteristics which potentially determine the daily rate
> on Airbnb listings through time in New York City (e.g. characteristics
> of the listing as number of bedrooms, if the host if professional,
> proximity to downtown (New York City Hall) and nearest subway station
> from the listing, income per capita, etc.).
>
> My dependent variable is price (log price, common in the related
> literature for hedonic prices).
>
> The OLS model is done.
>
> For the spatial model, I am assuming that hosts, when deciding the
> pricing of their listings, take not only into account its structural and
> location characteristics, but also the prices charged by near listings
> with similar characteristics  spatial autocorrelation is then present,
> at least spatial dependence is present in the dependent variable.
>
> As I wrote in my previous post, I was willing to consider the neighbor
> itself as a neighbor.
>
> Parts of my code can be found below:
>
> ########
>
> ## packages
>
> packages_install < function(packages){
> new.packages < packages[!(packages %in% installed.packages()[, "Package"])]
> if (length(new.packages))
> install.packages(new.packages, dependencies = TRUE)
> sapply(packages, require, character.only = TRUE)
> }
>
> packages_required < c("bookdown", "cowplot", "data.table", "dplyr", "e1071", "fastDummies", "ggplot2", "ggrepel", "janitor", "kableExtra", "knitr", "lubridate", "nngeo", "plm", "RColorBrewer", "readxl", "scales", "sf", "spdep", "stargazer", "tidyverse")
> packages_install(packages_required)
>
> # Working directory
> setwd("C:/Users/User/R")
>
>
>
> ## shapefile_us
>
> # Shapefile zips import and Coordinate Reference System (CRS) transformation
> # Shapefile download: https://www2.census.gov/geo/tiger/GENZ2018/shp/cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k.zip> shapefile_us < sf::st_read(dsn = "Shapefile", layer = "cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k")
>
> # Columns removal
> shapefile_us < shapefile_us %>% select(c(AFFGEOID10, GEOID10, ALAND10, AWATER10))
>
> # Column rename: ZCTA5CE10
> setnames(shapefile_us, old=c("ZCTA5CE10"), new=c("zipcode"))
>
> # Column class change: zipcode
> shapefile_us$zipcode < as.character(shapefile_us$zipcode)
>
>
>
> ## polygon_nyc
>
> # Zip code not available in shapefile: 11695
> polygon_nyc < shapefile_us %>% filter(zipcode %in% zips_nyc)
>
>
>
> ## weight_matrix
>
> # Neighboring polygons: list of neighbors for each polygon (queen contiguity neighbors)
> polygon_nyc_nb < poly2nb((polygon_nyc %>% select(borough)), queen=TRUE)
>
> # Include neighbour itself as a neighbour
> # for(i in 1:length(polygon_nyc_nb)){polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]=as.integer(c(i,polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]))}
> polygon_nyc_nb < include.self(polygon_nyc_nb)
>
> # Weights to each neighboring polygon
> lw < nb2listw(neighbours = polygon_nyc_nb, style="W", zero.policy=TRUE)
>
>
>
> ## listings
>
> # Data import
> files < list.files(path="Listings/", pattern=".csv", full.names=TRUE)
> listings < setNames(lapply(files, function(x) read.csv(x, stringsAsFactors = FALSE, encoding="UTF8")), files)
> listings < mapply(cbind, listings, date_compiled = names(listings))
> listings < listings %>% bind_rows
>
> # Characters removal
> listings$date_compiled < gsub("Listings/", "", listings$date_compiled)
> listings$date_compiled < gsub(".csv", "", listings$date_compiled)
> listings$price < gsub("\\$", "", listings$price)
> listings$price < gsub(",", "", listings$price)
>
>
>
> ## timedummy
>
> timedummy < sapply("date_compiled_", paste, unique(listings$date_compiled), sep="")
> timedummy < paste(timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")
> timedummy < gsub("", "_", timedummy)
>
>
>
> ## OLS regression
>
> # Pooled crosssection data  Randomly sampled cross sections of Airbnb listings price at different points in time
> regression < plm(formula=as.formula(paste("log_price ~ #some variables", timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")), data=listings, model="pooling", index="id")
>
> ########
>
> Some of my id's repeat in multiple time periods.
>
> I use NYC's zip codes to left join my data with the neighborhood zip code specific characteristics, such as income per capita to that specific zip code, etc.
>
> Now I want to apply the hedonic model with the timedummy variables.
>
> Do you know how to proceed? 1) Which package to use (spdep/splm)?; 2) Do I have to join the polygon_nyc (by zip code) to my listings data set, and then calculate the weight matrix "lw"?
>
> Again, thank you very much for the help provided until now.
>
> Best regards,
> Robert
>
> ________________________________________
> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
> Sent: Tuesday, November 5, 2019 15:30
> To: Robert R
> Cc: [hidden email]
> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>
> On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>
>> I have a large pooled crosssection data set. I would like to
>> estimate/regress using spatial autocorrelation methods. I am assuming
>> for now that spatial dependence is present in both the dependent
>> variable and the error term. My data set is over a period of 4 years,
>> monthly data (54 periods). For this means, I've created a time dummy
>> variable for each time period. I also created a weight matrix using the
>> functions "poly2nb" and "nb2listw". Now I am trying to figure out a way
>> to estimate my model which contains a really big data set. Basically, my
>> model is as follows: y = γD + ρW1y + Xβ + λW2u + ε My questions are: 1)
>> My spatial weight matrix for the whole data set will be probably a
>> enormous matrix with submatrices for each time period itself. I don't
>> think it would be possible to calculate this. What I would like to know
>> is a way to estimate each time dummy/period separately (to compare
>> different periods alone). How to do it? 2) Which package to use: spdep
>> or splm? Thank you and best regards, Robert
>
> Please do not post HTML, only plain text. Almost certainly your model
> specification is wrong (SARAR/SAC is always a bad idea if alternatives are
> untried). What is your crosssectional size? Using sparse kronecker
> products, the "enormous" matrix may not be very big. Does it make any
> sense using time dummies (54 x N x T will be mostly zero anyway)? Are most
> of the covariates timevarying? Please provide motivation and use area
> (preferably with affiliation (your email and user name are not
> informative)  this feels like a real estate problem, probably wrongly
> specified. You should use splm if time make sense in your case, but if it
> really doesn't, simplify your approach, as much of the data will be
> subject to very large temporal autocorrelation.
>
> If this is a continuation of your previous question about using
> selfneighbours, be aware that you should not use selfneighbours in
> modelling, they are only useful for the GetisOrd local G_i^* measure.
>
> Roger
>
>>
>> [[alternative HTML version deleted]]
>>
>> _______________________________________________
>> RsigGeo mailing list
>> [hidden email]
>> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo>
> 
> Roger Bivand
> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>

Roger Bivand
Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
https://orcid.org/0000000323926140https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en_______________________________________________
RsigGeo mailing list
[hidden email]
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo

Administrator

On Thu, 7 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
> Dear Roger,
>
> Many thanks for your help.
>
> I have an additional question:
>
> Is it possible to create a "separate" lw (nb2listw) (with different
> rownumbers) from my data set? For now, I am taking my data set and
> merging with the sf object polygon_nyc with the function
> "merge(polygon_nyc, listings, by=c("zipcode" = "zipcode"))", so I create
> a huge n x n matrix (depending of the size of my data set).
>
> Taking the polygon_nyc alone and turning it to a lw (weights list)
> object has only n = 177.
>
> Of course running
>
> spatialreg::lagsarlm(formula=model, data = listings_sample,
> spatialreg::polygon_nyc_lw, tol.solve=1.0e10)
>
> does not work ("Input data and weights have different dimensions").
>
> The only option is to take my data set, merge it to my polygon_nyc (by
> zipcode) and then create the weights list lw? Or there another option?
I think we are getting more clarity. You do not know the location of the
lettings beyond their zipcode. You do know the boundaries of the zipcode
areas, and can create a neighbour object from these boundaries. You then
want to treat all the lettings in a zipcode area i as neighbours, and
additionally lettings in zipcode areas neighbouring i as neighbours of
lettings in i. This is the data structure that motivated the
spdep::nb2blocknb() function:
https://rspatial.github.io/spdep/reference/nb2blocknb.htmlTry running the examples to get a feel for what is going on.
I feel that most of the variability will vanish in the very large numbers
of neighbours, oversmoothing the outcomes. If you do not have locations
for the lettings themselves, I don't think you can make much progress.
You could try a linear mixed model (or gam with a spatially structured
random effect) with a temporal and a spatial random effect. See the HSAR
package, articles by Dong et al., and maybe
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spasta.2017.01.002 for another survey. Neither
this nor Dong et al. handle spatiotemporal settings. MRF spatial random
effects at the zipcode level might be a way forward, together with an IID
random effect at the same level (equivalent to sefneighbours).
Hope this helps,
Roger
>
> Best regards,
> Robert
>
> ________________________________________
> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
> Sent: Wednesday, November 6, 2019 15:07
> To: Robert R
> Cc: [hidden email]
> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>
> On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>
>> Dear Roger,
>>
>> Thank you for your reply. I disabled HTML; my emails should be now in
>> plain text.
>>
>> I will give a better context for my desired outcome.
>>
>> I am taking Airbnb's listings information for New York City available
>> on: http://insideairbnb.com/getthedata.html>>
>> I save every listings.csv.gz file available for NYC (201501 to 201909)
>>  in total, 54 files/time periods  as a YYYYMMDD.csv file into a
>> Listings/ folder. When importing all these 54 files into one single data
>> set, I create a new "date_compiled" variable/column.
>>
>> In total, after the data cleansing process, I have a little more 2
>> million observations.
>
> You have repeat lettings for some, but not all properties. So this is at
> best a very unbalanced panel. For those properties with repeats, you may
> see temporal movement (trend/seasonal).
>
> I suggest (strongly) taking a single borough or even zipcode with some
> hindreds of properties, and working from there. Do not include the
> observation as its own neighbour, perhaps identify repeats and handle them
> specially (create or use a property ID). Unbalanced panels may also create
> a selection bias issue (why are some properties only listed sometimes?).
>
> So this although promising isn't simple, and getting to a hedonic model
> may be hard, but not (just) because of spatial autocorrelation. I wouldn't
> necessarily trust OLS output either, partly because of the repeat property
> issue.
>
> Roger
>
>>
>> I created 54 timedummy variables for each time period available.
>>
>> I want to estimate using a hedonic spatial timedummy model the impact of
>> a variety of characteristics which potentially determine the daily rate
>> on Airbnb listings through time in New York City (e.g. characteristics
>> of the listing as number of bedrooms, if the host if professional,
>> proximity to downtown (New York City Hall) and nearest subway station
>> from the listing, income per capita, etc.).
>>
>> My dependent variable is price (log price, common in the related
>> literature for hedonic prices).
>>
>> The OLS model is done.
>>
>> For the spatial model, I am assuming that hosts, when deciding the
>> pricing of their listings, take not only into account its structural and
>> location characteristics, but also the prices charged by near listings
>> with similar characteristics  spatial autocorrelation is then present,
>> at least spatial dependence is present in the dependent variable.
>>
>> As I wrote in my previous post, I was willing to consider the neighbor
>> itself as a neighbor.
>>
>> Parts of my code can be found below:
>>
>> ########
>>
>> ## packages
>>
>> packages_install < function(packages){
>> new.packages < packages[!(packages %in% installed.packages()[, "Package"])]
>> if (length(new.packages))
>> install.packages(new.packages, dependencies = TRUE)
>> sapply(packages, require, character.only = TRUE)
>> }
>>
>> packages_required < c("bookdown", "cowplot", "data.table", "dplyr", "e1071", "fastDummies", "ggplot2", "ggrepel", "janitor", "kableExtra", "knitr", "lubridate", "nngeo", "plm", "RColorBrewer", "readxl", "scales", "sf", "spdep", "stargazer", "tidyverse")
>> packages_install(packages_required)
>>
>> # Working directory
>> setwd("C:/Users/User/R")
>>
>>
>>
>> ## shapefile_us
>>
>> # Shapefile zips import and Coordinate Reference System (CRS) transformation
>> # Shapefile download: https://www2.census.gov/geo/tiger/GENZ2018/shp/cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k.zip>> shapefile_us < sf::st_read(dsn = "Shapefile", layer = "cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k")
>>
>> # Columns removal
>> shapefile_us < shapefile_us %>% select(c(AFFGEOID10, GEOID10, ALAND10, AWATER10))
>>
>> # Column rename: ZCTA5CE10
>> setnames(shapefile_us, old=c("ZCTA5CE10"), new=c("zipcode"))
>>
>> # Column class change: zipcode
>> shapefile_us$zipcode < as.character(shapefile_us$zipcode)
>>
>>
>>
>> ## polygon_nyc
>>
>> # Zip code not available in shapefile: 11695
>> polygon_nyc < shapefile_us %>% filter(zipcode %in% zips_nyc)
>>
>>
>>
>> ## weight_matrix
>>
>> # Neighboring polygons: list of neighbors for each polygon (queen contiguity neighbors)
>> polygon_nyc_nb < poly2nb((polygon_nyc %>% select(borough)), queen=TRUE)
>>
>> # Include neighbour itself as a neighbour
>> # for(i in 1:length(polygon_nyc_nb)){polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]=as.integer(c(i,polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]))}
>> polygon_nyc_nb < include.self(polygon_nyc_nb)
>>
>> # Weights to each neighboring polygon
>> lw < nb2listw(neighbours = polygon_nyc_nb, style="W", zero.policy=TRUE)
>>
>>
>>
>> ## listings
>>
>> # Data import
>> files < list.files(path="Listings/", pattern=".csv", full.names=TRUE)
>> listings < setNames(lapply(files, function(x) read.csv(x, stringsAsFactors = FALSE, encoding="UTF8")), files)
>> listings < mapply(cbind, listings, date_compiled = names(listings))
>> listings < listings %>% bind_rows
>>
>> # Characters removal
>> listings$date_compiled < gsub("Listings/", "", listings$date_compiled)
>> listings$date_compiled < gsub(".csv", "", listings$date_compiled)
>> listings$price < gsub("\\$", "", listings$price)
>> listings$price < gsub(",", "", listings$price)
>>
>>
>>
>> ## timedummy
>>
>> timedummy < sapply("date_compiled_", paste, unique(listings$date_compiled), sep="")
>> timedummy < paste(timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")
>> timedummy < gsub("", "_", timedummy)
>>
>>
>>
>> ## OLS regression
>>
>> # Pooled crosssection data  Randomly sampled cross sections of Airbnb listings price at different points in time
>> regression < plm(formula=as.formula(paste("log_price ~ #some variables", timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")), data=listings, model="pooling", index="id")
>>
>> ########
>>
>> Some of my id's repeat in multiple time periods.
>>
>> I use NYC's zip codes to left join my data with the neighborhood zip code specific characteristics, such as income per capita to that specific zip code, etc.
>>
>> Now I want to apply the hedonic model with the timedummy variables.
>>
>> Do you know how to proceed? 1) Which package to use (spdep/splm)?; 2) Do I have to join the polygon_nyc (by zip code) to my listings data set, and then calculate the weight matrix "lw"?
>>
>> Again, thank you very much for the help provided until now.
>>
>> Best regards,
>> Robert
>>
>> ________________________________________
>> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
>> Sent: Tuesday, November 5, 2019 15:30
>> To: Robert R
>> Cc: [hidden email]
>> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>>
>> On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>>
>>> I have a large pooled crosssection data set. I would like to
>>> estimate/regress using spatial autocorrelation methods. I am assuming
>>> for now that spatial dependence is present in both the dependent
>>> variable and the error term. My data set is over a period of 4 years,
>>> monthly data (54 periods). For this means, I've created a time dummy
>>> variable for each time period. I also created a weight matrix using the
>>> functions "poly2nb" and "nb2listw". Now I am trying to figure out a way
>>> to estimate my model which contains a really big data set. Basically, my
>>> model is as follows: y = γD + ρW1y + Xβ + λW2u + ε My questions are: 1)
>>> My spatial weight matrix for the whole data set will be probably a
>>> enormous matrix with submatrices for each time period itself. I don't
>>> think it would be possible to calculate this. What I would like to know
>>> is a way to estimate each time dummy/period separately (to compare
>>> different periods alone). How to do it? 2) Which package to use: spdep
>>> or splm? Thank you and best regards, Robert
>>
>> Please do not post HTML, only plain text. Almost certainly your model
>> specification is wrong (SARAR/SAC is always a bad idea if alternatives are
>> untried). What is your crosssectional size? Using sparse kronecker
>> products, the "enormous" matrix may not be very big. Does it make any
>> sense using time dummies (54 x N x T will be mostly zero anyway)? Are most
>> of the covariates timevarying? Please provide motivation and use area
>> (preferably with affiliation (your email and user name are not
>> informative)  this feels like a real estate problem, probably wrongly
>> specified. You should use splm if time make sense in your case, but if it
>> really doesn't, simplify your approach, as much of the data will be
>> subject to very large temporal autocorrelation.
>>
>> If this is a continuation of your previous question about using
>> selfneighbours, be aware that you should not use selfneighbours in
>> modelling, they are only useful for the GetisOrd local G_i^* measure.
>>
>> Roger
>>
>>>
>>> [[alternative HTML version deleted]]
>>>
>>> _______________________________________________
>>> RsigGeo mailing list
>>> [hidden email]
>>> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo>>
>> 
>> Roger Bivand
>> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
>> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
>> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
>> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140>> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>>
>
> 
> Roger Bivand
> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>

Roger Bivand
Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
https://orcid.org/0000000323926140https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en_______________________________________________
RsigGeo mailing list
[hidden email]
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo
Roger Bivand
Department of Economics
Norwegian School of Economics
Helleveien 30
N5045 Bergen, Norway


Dear Roger,
Thank you for your answer.
I successfully used the function nb2blocknb() for a smaller dataset.
But for a dataset of over 2 million observations, I get the following error: "Error: cannot allocate vector of size 840 Kb".
I am expecting that at least 500.000 observations will be dropped due the lack of values for the chosen variables for the regression model, so probably I will filter and remove the observations/rows that will not be used anyway  do you know if there is any package that does this automatically, given the variables/columns chosed by me?
Or would you recommend me another approach to avoid the above mentioned error?
Thank you and best regards,
Robert
________________________________________
From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
Sent: Thursday, November 7, 2019 10:13
To: Robert R
Cc: [hidden email]
Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
On Thu, 7 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
> Dear Roger,
>
> Many thanks for your help.
>
> I have an additional question:
>
> Is it possible to create a "separate" lw (nb2listw) (with different
> rownumbers) from my data set? For now, I am taking my data set and
> merging with the sf object polygon_nyc with the function
> "merge(polygon_nyc, listings, by=c("zipcode" = "zipcode"))", so I create
> a huge n x n matrix (depending of the size of my data set).
>
> Taking the polygon_nyc alone and turning it to a lw (weights list)
> object has only n = 177.
>
> Of course running
>
> spatialreg::lagsarlm(formula=model, data = listings_sample,
> spatialreg::polygon_nyc_lw, tol.solve=1.0e10)
>
> does not work ("Input data and weights have different dimensions").
>
> The only option is to take my data set, merge it to my polygon_nyc (by
> zipcode) and then create the weights list lw? Or there another option?
I think we are getting more clarity. You do not know the location of the
lettings beyond their zipcode. You do know the boundaries of the zipcode
areas, and can create a neighbour object from these boundaries. You then
want to treat all the lettings in a zipcode area i as neighbours, and
additionally lettings in zipcode areas neighbouring i as neighbours of
lettings in i. This is the data structure that motivated the
spdep::nb2blocknb() function:
https://rspatial.github.io/spdep/reference/nb2blocknb.htmlTry running the examples to get a feel for what is going on.
I feel that most of the variability will vanish in the very large numbers
of neighbours, oversmoothing the outcomes. If you do not have locations
for the lettings themselves, I don't think you can make much progress.
You could try a linear mixed model (or gam with a spatially structured
random effect) with a temporal and a spatial random effect. See the HSAR
package, articles by Dong et al., and maybe
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spasta.2017.01.002 for another survey. Neither
this nor Dong et al. handle spatiotemporal settings. MRF spatial random
effects at the zipcode level might be a way forward, together with an IID
random effect at the same level (equivalent to sefneighbours).
Hope this helps,
Roger
>
> Best regards,
> Robert
>
> ________________________________________
> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
> Sent: Wednesday, November 6, 2019 15:07
> To: Robert R
> Cc: [hidden email]
> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>
> On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>
>> Dear Roger,
>>
>> Thank you for your reply. I disabled HTML; my emails should be now in
>> plain text.
>>
>> I will give a better context for my desired outcome.
>>
>> I am taking Airbnb's listings information for New York City available
>> on: http://insideairbnb.com/getthedata.html>>
>> I save every listings.csv.gz file available for NYC (201501 to 201909)
>>  in total, 54 files/time periods  as a YYYYMMDD.csv file into a
>> Listings/ folder. When importing all these 54 files into one single data
>> set, I create a new "date_compiled" variable/column.
>>
>> In total, after the data cleansing process, I have a little more 2
>> million observations.
>
> You have repeat lettings for some, but not all properties. So this is at
> best a very unbalanced panel. For those properties with repeats, you may
> see temporal movement (trend/seasonal).
>
> I suggest (strongly) taking a single borough or even zipcode with some
> hindreds of properties, and working from there. Do not include the
> observation as its own neighbour, perhaps identify repeats and handle them
> specially (create or use a property ID). Unbalanced panels may also create
> a selection bias issue (why are some properties only listed sometimes?).
>
> So this although promising isn't simple, and getting to a hedonic model
> may be hard, but not (just) because of spatial autocorrelation. I wouldn't
> necessarily trust OLS output either, partly because of the repeat property
> issue.
>
> Roger
>
>>
>> I created 54 timedummy variables for each time period available.
>>
>> I want to estimate using a hedonic spatial timedummy model the impact of
>> a variety of characteristics which potentially determine the daily rate
>> on Airbnb listings through time in New York City (e.g. characteristics
>> of the listing as number of bedrooms, if the host if professional,
>> proximity to downtown (New York City Hall) and nearest subway station
>> from the listing, income per capita, etc.).
>>
>> My dependent variable is price (log price, common in the related
>> literature for hedonic prices).
>>
>> The OLS model is done.
>>
>> For the spatial model, I am assuming that hosts, when deciding the
>> pricing of their listings, take not only into account its structural and
>> location characteristics, but also the prices charged by near listings
>> with similar characteristics  spatial autocorrelation is then present,
>> at least spatial dependence is present in the dependent variable.
>>
>> As I wrote in my previous post, I was willing to consider the neighbor
>> itself as a neighbor.
>>
>> Parts of my code can be found below:
>>
>> ########
>>
>> ## packages
>>
>> packages_install < function(packages){
>> new.packages < packages[!(packages %in% installed.packages()[, "Package"])]
>> if (length(new.packages))
>> install.packages(new.packages, dependencies = TRUE)
>> sapply(packages, require, character.only = TRUE)
>> }
>>
>> packages_required < c("bookdown", "cowplot", "data.table", "dplyr", "e1071", "fastDummies", "ggplot2", "ggrepel", "janitor", "kableExtra", "knitr", "lubridate", "nngeo", "plm", "RColorBrewer", "readxl", "scales", "sf", "spdep", "stargazer", "tidyverse")
>> packages_install(packages_required)
>>
>> # Working directory
>> setwd("C:/Users/User/R")
>>
>>
>>
>> ## shapefile_us
>>
>> # Shapefile zips import and Coordinate Reference System (CRS) transformation
>> # Shapefile download: https://www2.census.gov/geo/tiger/GENZ2018/shp/cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k.zip>> shapefile_us < sf::st_read(dsn = "Shapefile", layer = "cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k")
>>
>> # Columns removal
>> shapefile_us < shapefile_us %>% select(c(AFFGEOID10, GEOID10, ALAND10, AWATER10))
>>
>> # Column rename: ZCTA5CE10
>> setnames(shapefile_us, old=c("ZCTA5CE10"), new=c("zipcode"))
>>
>> # Column class change: zipcode
>> shapefile_us$zipcode < as.character(shapefile_us$zipcode)
>>
>>
>>
>> ## polygon_nyc
>>
>> # Zip code not available in shapefile: 11695
>> polygon_nyc < shapefile_us %>% filter(zipcode %in% zips_nyc)
>>
>>
>>
>> ## weight_matrix
>>
>> # Neighboring polygons: list of neighbors for each polygon (queen contiguity neighbors)
>> polygon_nyc_nb < poly2nb((polygon_nyc %>% select(borough)), queen=TRUE)
>>
>> # Include neighbour itself as a neighbour
>> # for(i in 1:length(polygon_nyc_nb)){polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]=as.integer(c(i,polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]))}
>> polygon_nyc_nb < include.self(polygon_nyc_nb)
>>
>> # Weights to each neighboring polygon
>> lw < nb2listw(neighbours = polygon_nyc_nb, style="W", zero.policy=TRUE)
>>
>>
>>
>> ## listings
>>
>> # Data import
>> files < list.files(path="Listings/", pattern=".csv", full.names=TRUE)
>> listings < setNames(lapply(files, function(x) read.csv(x, stringsAsFactors = FALSE, encoding="UTF8")), files)
>> listings < mapply(cbind, listings, date_compiled = names(listings))
>> listings < listings %>% bind_rows
>>
>> # Characters removal
>> listings$date_compiled < gsub("Listings/", "", listings$date_compiled)
>> listings$date_compiled < gsub(".csv", "", listings$date_compiled)
>> listings$price < gsub("\\$", "", listings$price)
>> listings$price < gsub(",", "", listings$price)
>>
>>
>>
>> ## timedummy
>>
>> timedummy < sapply("date_compiled_", paste, unique(listings$date_compiled), sep="")
>> timedummy < paste(timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")
>> timedummy < gsub("", "_", timedummy)
>>
>>
>>
>> ## OLS regression
>>
>> # Pooled crosssection data  Randomly sampled cross sections of Airbnb listings price at different points in time
>> regression < plm(formula=as.formula(paste("log_price ~ #some variables", timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")), data=listings, model="pooling", index="id")
>>
>> ########
>>
>> Some of my id's repeat in multiple time periods.
>>
>> I use NYC's zip codes to left join my data with the neighborhood zip code specific characteristics, such as income per capita to that specific zip code, etc.
>>
>> Now I want to apply the hedonic model with the timedummy variables.
>>
>> Do you know how to proceed? 1) Which package to use (spdep/splm)?; 2) Do I have to join the polygon_nyc (by zip code) to my listings data set, and then calculate the weight matrix "lw"?
>>
>> Again, thank you very much for the help provided until now.
>>
>> Best regards,
>> Robert
>>
>> ________________________________________
>> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
>> Sent: Tuesday, November 5, 2019 15:30
>> To: Robert R
>> Cc: [hidden email]
>> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>>
>> On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>>
>>> I have a large pooled crosssection data set. I would like to
>>> estimate/regress using spatial autocorrelation methods. I am assuming
>>> for now that spatial dependence is present in both the dependent
>>> variable and the error term. My data set is over a period of 4 years,
>>> monthly data (54 periods). For this means, I've created a time dummy
>>> variable for each time period. I also created a weight matrix using the
>>> functions "poly2nb" and "nb2listw". Now I am trying to figure out a way
>>> to estimate my model which contains a really big data set. Basically, my
>>> model is as follows: y = γD + ρW1y + Xβ + λW2u + ε My questions are: 1)
>>> My spatial weight matrix for the whole data set will be probably a
>>> enormous matrix with submatrices for each time period itself. I don't
>>> think it would be possible to calculate this. What I would like to know
>>> is a way to estimate each time dummy/period separately (to compare
>>> different periods alone). How to do it? 2) Which package to use: spdep
>>> or splm? Thank you and best regards, Robert
>>
>> Please do not post HTML, only plain text. Almost certainly your model
>> specification is wrong (SARAR/SAC is always a bad idea if alternatives are
>> untried). What is your crosssectional size? Using sparse kronecker
>> products, the "enormous" matrix may not be very big. Does it make any
>> sense using time dummies (54 x N x T will be mostly zero anyway)? Are most
>> of the covariates timevarying? Please provide motivation and use area
>> (preferably with affiliation (your email and user name are not
>> informative)  this feels like a real estate problem, probably wrongly
>> specified. You should use splm if time make sense in your case, but if it
>> really doesn't, simplify your approach, as much of the data will be
>> subject to very large temporal autocorrelation.
>>
>> If this is a continuation of your previous question about using
>> selfneighbours, be aware that you should not use selfneighbours in
>> modelling, they are only useful for the GetisOrd local G_i^* measure.
>>
>> Roger
>>
>>>
>>> [[alternative HTML version deleted]]
>>>
>>> _______________________________________________
>>> RsigGeo mailing list
>>> [hidden email]
>>> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo>>
>> 
>> Roger Bivand
>> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
>> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
>> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
>> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140>> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>>
>
> 
> Roger Bivand
> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>

Roger Bivand
Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
https://orcid.org/0000000323926140https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en_______________________________________________
RsigGeo mailing list
[hidden email]
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo

Administrator

On Fri, 8 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
> Dear Roger,
>
> Thank you for your answer.
>
> I successfully used the function nb2blocknb() for a smaller dataset.
>
> But for a dataset of over 2 million observations, I get the following
> error: "Error: cannot allocate vector of size 840 Kb".
I don't think the observations are helpful. If you have repeat lets in the
same property in a given month, you need to handle that anyway. I'd go for
making the modelling exercise work (we agree that this is not panel data,
right?) on a small subset first. I would further argue that you need a
multilevel approach rather than spdep::nb2blocknb(), with a zipcode IID
RE. You could very well take (stratified) samples per zipcode to represent
your data. Once that works, introduce an MRF RE at the zipcode level,
where you do know relative position. Using SARAR is going to be a waste of
time unless you can geocode the letting addresses. A multilevel approach
will work. Having big data in your case with no useful location
information per observation is just adding noise and oversmoothing, I'm
afraid. The approach used in https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spasta.2017.01.002
will work, also when you sample the within zipcode lets, given a split
into training and test sets, and making CV possible.
Roger
>
> I am expecting that at least 500.000 observations will be dropped due
> the lack of values for the chosen variables for the regression model, so
> probably I will filter and remove the observations/rows that will not be
> used anyway  do you know if there is any package that does this
> automatically, given the variables/columns chosed by me?
>
> Or would you recommend me another approach to avoid the above mentioned
> error?
>
> Thank you and best regards,
> Robert
>
> ________________________________________
> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
> Sent: Thursday, November 7, 2019 10:13
> To: Robert R
> Cc: [hidden email]
> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>
> On Thu, 7 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>
>> Dear Roger,
>>
>> Many thanks for your help.
>>
>> I have an additional question:
>>
>> Is it possible to create a "separate" lw (nb2listw) (with different
>> rownumbers) from my data set? For now, I am taking my data set and
>> merging with the sf object polygon_nyc with the function
>> "merge(polygon_nyc, listings, by=c("zipcode" = "zipcode"))", so I create
>> a huge n x n matrix (depending of the size of my data set).
>>
>> Taking the polygon_nyc alone and turning it to a lw (weights list)
>> object has only n = 177.
>>
>> Of course running
>>
>> spatialreg::lagsarlm(formula=model, data = listings_sample,
>> spatialreg::polygon_nyc_lw, tol.solve=1.0e10)
>>
>> does not work ("Input data and weights have different dimensions").
>>
>> The only option is to take my data set, merge it to my polygon_nyc (by
>> zipcode) and then create the weights list lw? Or there another option?
>
> I think we are getting more clarity. You do not know the location of the
> lettings beyond their zipcode. You do know the boundaries of the zipcode
> areas, and can create a neighbour object from these boundaries. You then
> want to treat all the lettings in a zipcode area i as neighbours, and
> additionally lettings in zipcode areas neighbouring i as neighbours of
> lettings in i. This is the data structure that motivated the
> spdep::nb2blocknb() function:
>
> https://rspatial.github.io/spdep/reference/nb2blocknb.html>
> Try running the examples to get a feel for what is going on.
>
> I feel that most of the variability will vanish in the very large numbers
> of neighbours, oversmoothing the outcomes. If you do not have locations
> for the lettings themselves, I don't think you can make much progress.
>
> You could try a linear mixed model (or gam with a spatially structured
> random effect) with a temporal and a spatial random effect. See the HSAR
> package, articles by Dong et al., and maybe
> https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spasta.2017.01.002 for another survey. Neither
> this nor Dong et al. handle spatiotemporal settings. MRF spatial random
> effects at the zipcode level might be a way forward, together with an IID
> random effect at the same level (equivalent to sefneighbours).
>
> Hope this helps,
>
> Roger
>
>>
>> Best regards,
>> Robert
>>
>> ________________________________________
>> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
>> Sent: Wednesday, November 6, 2019 15:07
>> To: Robert R
>> Cc: [hidden email]
>> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>>
>> On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>>
>>> Dear Roger,
>>>
>>> Thank you for your reply. I disabled HTML; my emails should be now in
>>> plain text.
>>>
>>> I will give a better context for my desired outcome.
>>>
>>> I am taking Airbnb's listings information for New York City available
>>> on: http://insideairbnb.com/getthedata.html>>>
>>> I save every listings.csv.gz file available for NYC (201501 to 201909)
>>>  in total, 54 files/time periods  as a YYYYMMDD.csv file into a
>>> Listings/ folder. When importing all these 54 files into one single data
>>> set, I create a new "date_compiled" variable/column.
>>>
>>> In total, after the data cleansing process, I have a little more 2
>>> million observations.
>>
>> You have repeat lettings for some, but not all properties. So this is at
>> best a very unbalanced panel. For those properties with repeats, you may
>> see temporal movement (trend/seasonal).
>>
>> I suggest (strongly) taking a single borough or even zipcode with some
>> hindreds of properties, and working from there. Do not include the
>> observation as its own neighbour, perhaps identify repeats and handle them
>> specially (create or use a property ID). Unbalanced panels may also create
>> a selection bias issue (why are some properties only listed sometimes?).
>>
>> So this although promising isn't simple, and getting to a hedonic model
>> may be hard, but not (just) because of spatial autocorrelation. I wouldn't
>> necessarily trust OLS output either, partly because of the repeat property
>> issue.
>>
>> Roger
>>
>>>
>>> I created 54 timedummy variables for each time period available.
>>>
>>> I want to estimate using a hedonic spatial timedummy model the impact of
>>> a variety of characteristics which potentially determine the daily rate
>>> on Airbnb listings through time in New York City (e.g. characteristics
>>> of the listing as number of bedrooms, if the host if professional,
>>> proximity to downtown (New York City Hall) and nearest subway station
>>> from the listing, income per capita, etc.).
>>>
>>> My dependent variable is price (log price, common in the related
>>> literature for hedonic prices).
>>>
>>> The OLS model is done.
>>>
>>> For the spatial model, I am assuming that hosts, when deciding the
>>> pricing of their listings, take not only into account its structural and
>>> location characteristics, but also the prices charged by near listings
>>> with similar characteristics  spatial autocorrelation is then present,
>>> at least spatial dependence is present in the dependent variable.
>>>
>>> As I wrote in my previous post, I was willing to consider the neighbor
>>> itself as a neighbor.
>>>
>>> Parts of my code can be found below:
>>>
>>> ########
>>>
>>> ## packages
>>>
>>> packages_install < function(packages){
>>> new.packages < packages[!(packages %in% installed.packages()[, "Package"])]
>>> if (length(new.packages))
>>> install.packages(new.packages, dependencies = TRUE)
>>> sapply(packages, require, character.only = TRUE)
>>> }
>>>
>>> packages_required < c("bookdown", "cowplot", "data.table", "dplyr", "e1071", "fastDummies", "ggplot2", "ggrepel", "janitor", "kableExtra", "knitr", "lubridate", "nngeo", "plm", "RColorBrewer", "readxl", "scales", "sf", "spdep", "stargazer", "tidyverse")
>>> packages_install(packages_required)
>>>
>>> # Working directory
>>> setwd("C:/Users/User/R")
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> ## shapefile_us
>>>
>>> # Shapefile zips import and Coordinate Reference System (CRS) transformation
>>> # Shapefile download: https://www2.census.gov/geo/tiger/GENZ2018/shp/cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k.zip>>> shapefile_us < sf::st_read(dsn = "Shapefile", layer = "cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k")
>>>
>>> # Columns removal
>>> shapefile_us < shapefile_us %>% select(c(AFFGEOID10, GEOID10, ALAND10, AWATER10))
>>>
>>> # Column rename: ZCTA5CE10
>>> setnames(shapefile_us, old=c("ZCTA5CE10"), new=c("zipcode"))
>>>
>>> # Column class change: zipcode
>>> shapefile_us$zipcode < as.character(shapefile_us$zipcode)
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> ## polygon_nyc
>>>
>>> # Zip code not available in shapefile: 11695
>>> polygon_nyc < shapefile_us %>% filter(zipcode %in% zips_nyc)
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> ## weight_matrix
>>>
>>> # Neighboring polygons: list of neighbors for each polygon (queen contiguity neighbors)
>>> polygon_nyc_nb < poly2nb((polygon_nyc %>% select(borough)), queen=TRUE)
>>>
>>> # Include neighbour itself as a neighbour
>>> # for(i in 1:length(polygon_nyc_nb)){polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]=as.integer(c(i,polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]))}
>>> polygon_nyc_nb < include.self(polygon_nyc_nb)
>>>
>>> # Weights to each neighboring polygon
>>> lw < nb2listw(neighbours = polygon_nyc_nb, style="W", zero.policy=TRUE)
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> ## listings
>>>
>>> # Data import
>>> files < list.files(path="Listings/", pattern=".csv", full.names=TRUE)
>>> listings < setNames(lapply(files, function(x) read.csv(x, stringsAsFactors = FALSE, encoding="UTF8")), files)
>>> listings < mapply(cbind, listings, date_compiled = names(listings))
>>> listings < listings %>% bind_rows
>>>
>>> # Characters removal
>>> listings$date_compiled < gsub("Listings/", "", listings$date_compiled)
>>> listings$date_compiled < gsub(".csv", "", listings$date_compiled)
>>> listings$price < gsub("\\$", "", listings$price)
>>> listings$price < gsub(",", "", listings$price)
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> ## timedummy
>>>
>>> timedummy < sapply("date_compiled_", paste, unique(listings$date_compiled), sep="")
>>> timedummy < paste(timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")
>>> timedummy < gsub("", "_", timedummy)
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> ## OLS regression
>>>
>>> # Pooled crosssection data  Randomly sampled cross sections of Airbnb listings price at different points in time
>>> regression < plm(formula=as.formula(paste("log_price ~ #some variables", timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")), data=listings, model="pooling", index="id")
>>>
>>> ########
>>>
>>> Some of my id's repeat in multiple time periods.
>>>
>>> I use NYC's zip codes to left join my data with the neighborhood zip code specific characteristics, such as income per capita to that specific zip code, etc.
>>>
>>> Now I want to apply the hedonic model with the timedummy variables.
>>>
>>> Do you know how to proceed? 1) Which package to use (spdep/splm)?; 2) Do I have to join the polygon_nyc (by zip code) to my listings data set, and then calculate the weight matrix "lw"?
>>>
>>> Again, thank you very much for the help provided until now.
>>>
>>> Best regards,
>>> Robert
>>>
>>> ________________________________________
>>> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
>>> Sent: Tuesday, November 5, 2019 15:30
>>> To: Robert R
>>> Cc: [hidden email]
>>> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>>>
>>> On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>>>
>>>> I have a large pooled crosssection data set. I would like to
>>>> estimate/regress using spatial autocorrelation methods. I am assuming
>>>> for now that spatial dependence is present in both the dependent
>>>> variable and the error term. My data set is over a period of 4 years,
>>>> monthly data (54 periods). For this means, I've created a time dummy
>>>> variable for each time period. I also created a weight matrix using the
>>>> functions "poly2nb" and "nb2listw". Now I am trying to figure out a way
>>>> to estimate my model which contains a really big data set. Basically, my
>>>> model is as follows: y = γD + ρW1y + Xβ + λW2u + ε My questions are: 1)
>>>> My spatial weight matrix for the whole data set will be probably a
>>>> enormous matrix with submatrices for each time period itself. I don't
>>>> think it would be possible to calculate this. What I would like to know
>>>> is a way to estimate each time dummy/period separately (to compare
>>>> different periods alone). How to do it? 2) Which package to use: spdep
>>>> or splm? Thank you and best regards, Robert
>>>
>>> Please do not post HTML, only plain text. Almost certainly your model
>>> specification is wrong (SARAR/SAC is always a bad idea if alternatives are
>>> untried). What is your crosssectional size? Using sparse kronecker
>>> products, the "enormous" matrix may not be very big. Does it make any
>>> sense using time dummies (54 x N x T will be mostly zero anyway)? Are most
>>> of the covariates timevarying? Please provide motivation and use area
>>> (preferably with affiliation (your email and user name are not
>>> informative)  this feels like a real estate problem, probably wrongly
>>> specified. You should use splm if time make sense in your case, but if it
>>> really doesn't, simplify your approach, as much of the data will be
>>> subject to very large temporal autocorrelation.
>>>
>>> If this is a continuation of your previous question about using
>>> selfneighbours, be aware that you should not use selfneighbours in
>>> modelling, they are only useful for the GetisOrd local G_i^* measure.
>>>
>>> Roger
>>>
>>>>
>>>> [[alternative HTML version deleted]]
>>>>
>>>> _______________________________________________
>>>> RsigGeo mailing list
>>>> [hidden email]
>>>> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo>>>
>>> 
>>> Roger Bivand
>>> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
>>> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
>>> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
>>> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140>>> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>>>
>>
>> 
>> Roger Bivand
>> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
>> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
>> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
>> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140>> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>>
>
> 
> Roger Bivand
> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>

Roger Bivand
Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
https://orcid.org/0000000323926140https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en_______________________________________________
RsigGeo mailing list
[hidden email]
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo
Roger Bivand
Department of Economics
Norwegian School of Economics
Helleveien 30
N5045 Bergen, Norway


Dear Roger,
Again, thank you for your answer. I read the material provided and decided that Hierarchical Spatial Autoregressive (HSAR) could be the right model for me.
I indeed have the precise latitude and longitude information for all my listings for NYC.
I created a stratified sample (group = zipcode) with 22172 (1%) of my observations called listings_sample and tried to replicate the hsar model, please see below.
For now W = NULL, because otherwise I would have a 22172 x 22172 matrix.
You recommended then to introduce a Markov random field (MRF) random effect (RE) at the zipcode level, but I did not understand it so well. Could you develop a litte more?
##############
library(spdep)
library(HSAR)
library(dplyr)
library(splitstackshape)
# Stratified sample per zipcode (size = 1%)
listings_sample < splitstackshape::stratified(indt = listings, group = "zipcode", size = 0.01)
# Removing zipcodes from polygon_nyc which are not observable in listings_sample
polygon_nyc_listings < polygon_nyc %>% filter(zipcode %in% c(unique(as.character(listings_sample$zipcode))))
## Random effect matrix (N by J)
# N: 22172
# J: 154
# Arrange listings_sample by zipcode (ascending)
listings_sample < listings_sample %>% arrange(zipcode)
# Count number of listings per zipcode
MM < listings_sample %>% st_drop_geometry() %>% group_by(zipcode) %>% summarise(count = n()) %>% as.data.frame()
# sum(MM$count)
# N by J nulled matrix creation
Delta < matrix(data = 0, nrow = nrow(listings_sample), ncol = dim(MM)[1])
# The total number of neighbourhood
Uid < rep(c(1:dim(MM)[1]), MM[,2])
for(i in 1:dim(MM)[1]) {
Delta[Uid==i,i] < 1
}
rm(i)
Delta < as(Delta,"dgCMatrix")
## Higherlevel spatial weights matrix or neighbourhood matrix (J by J)
# Neighboring polygons: list of neighbors for each polygon (queen contiguity neighbors)
polygon_nyc_nb < poly2nb(polygon_nyc_listings, row.names = polygon_nyc$zipcode, queen = TRUE)
# Include neighbour itself as a neighbour
polygon_nyc_nb < include.self(polygon_nyc_nb)
# Spatial weights matrix for nb
polygon_nyc_nb_matrix < nb2mat(neighbours = polygon_nyc_nb, style = "W", zero.policy = NULL)
M < as(polygon_nyc_nb_matrix,"dgCMatrix")
## Fit HSAR SAR upper level random effect
model < as.formula(log_price ~ guests_included + minimum_nights)
betas = coef(lm(formula = model, data = listings_sample))
pars = list(rho = 0.5, lambda = 0.5, sigma2e = 2.0, sigma2u = 2.0, betas = betas)
m_hsar < hsar(model, data = listings_sample, W = NULL, M = M, Delta = Delta, burnin = 5000, Nsim = 10000, thinning = 1, parameters.start = pars)
##############
Thank you and best regards
Robert
________________________________________
From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
Sent: Friday, November 8, 2019 13:29
To: Robert R
Cc: [hidden email]
Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
On Fri, 8 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
> Dear Roger,
>
> Thank you for your answer.
>
> I successfully used the function nb2blocknb() for a smaller dataset.
>
> But for a dataset of over 2 million observations, I get the following
> error: "Error: cannot allocate vector of size 840 Kb".
I don't think the observations are helpful. If you have repeat lets in the
same property in a given month, you need to handle that anyway. I'd go for
making the modelling exercise work (we agree that this is not panel data,
right?) on a small subset first. I would further argue that you need a
multilevel approach rather than spdep::nb2blocknb(), with a zipcode IID
RE. You could very well take (stratified) samples per zipcode to represent
your data. Once that works, introduce an MRF RE at the zipcode level,
where you do know relative position. Using SARAR is going to be a waste of
time unless you can geocode the letting addresses. A multilevel approach
will work. Having big data in your case with no useful location
information per observation is just adding noise and oversmoothing, I'm
afraid. The approach used in https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spasta.2017.01.002will work, also when you sample the within zipcode lets, given a split
into training and test sets, and making CV possible.
Roger
>
> I am expecting that at least 500.000 observations will be dropped due
> the lack of values for the chosen variables for the regression model, so
> probably I will filter and remove the observations/rows that will not be
> used anyway  do you know if there is any package that does this
> automatically, given the variables/columns chosed by me?
>
> Or would you recommend me another approach to avoid the above mentioned
> error?
>
> Thank you and best regards,
> Robert
>
> ________________________________________
> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
> Sent: Thursday, November 7, 2019 10:13
> To: Robert R
> Cc: [hidden email]
> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>
> On Thu, 7 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>
>> Dear Roger,
>>
>> Many thanks for your help.
>>
>> I have an additional question:
>>
>> Is it possible to create a "separate" lw (nb2listw) (with different
>> rownumbers) from my data set? For now, I am taking my data set and
>> merging with the sf object polygon_nyc with the function
>> "merge(polygon_nyc, listings, by=c("zipcode" = "zipcode"))", so I create
>> a huge n x n matrix (depending of the size of my data set).
>>
>> Taking the polygon_nyc alone and turning it to a lw (weights list)
>> object has only n = 177.
>>
>> Of course running
>>
>> spatialreg::lagsarlm(formula=model, data = listings_sample,
>> spatialreg::polygon_nyc_lw, tol.solve=1.0e10)
>>
>> does not work ("Input data and weights have different dimensions").
>>
>> The only option is to take my data set, merge it to my polygon_nyc (by
>> zipcode) and then create the weights list lw? Or there another option?
>
> I think we are getting more clarity. You do not know the location of the
> lettings beyond their zipcode. You do know the boundaries of the zipcode
> areas, and can create a neighbour object from these boundaries. You then
> want to treat all the lettings in a zipcode area i as neighbours, and
> additionally lettings in zipcode areas neighbouring i as neighbours of
> lettings in i. This is the data structure that motivated the
> spdep::nb2blocknb() function:
>
> https://rspatial.github.io/spdep/reference/nb2blocknb.html>
> Try running the examples to get a feel for what is going on.
>
> I feel that most of the variability will vanish in the very large numbers
> of neighbours, oversmoothing the outcomes. If you do not have locations
> for the lettings themselves, I don't think you can make much progress.
>
> You could try a linear mixed model (or gam with a spatially structured
> random effect) with a temporal and a spatial random effect. See the HSAR
> package, articles by Dong et al., and maybe
> https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spasta.2017.01.002 for another survey. Neither
> this nor Dong et al. handle spatiotemporal settings. MRF spatial random
> effects at the zipcode level might be a way forward, together with an IID
> random effect at the same level (equivalent to sefneighbours).
>
> Hope this helps,
>
> Roger
>
>>
>> Best regards,
>> Robert
>>
>> ________________________________________
>> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
>> Sent: Wednesday, November 6, 2019 15:07
>> To: Robert R
>> Cc: [hidden email]
>> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>>
>> On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>>
>>> Dear Roger,
>>>
>>> Thank you for your reply. I disabled HTML; my emails should be now in
>>> plain text.
>>>
>>> I will give a better context for my desired outcome.
>>>
>>> I am taking Airbnb's listings information for New York City available
>>> on: http://insideairbnb.com/getthedata.html>>>
>>> I save every listings.csv.gz file available for NYC (201501 to 201909)
>>>  in total, 54 files/time periods  as a YYYYMMDD.csv file into a
>>> Listings/ folder. When importing all these 54 files into one single data
>>> set, I create a new "date_compiled" variable/column.
>>>
>>> In total, after the data cleansing process, I have a little more 2
>>> million observations.
>>
>> You have repeat lettings for some, but not all properties. So this is at
>> best a very unbalanced panel. For those properties with repeats, you may
>> see temporal movement (trend/seasonal).
>>
>> I suggest (strongly) taking a single borough or even zipcode with some
>> hindreds of properties, and working from there. Do not include the
>> observation as its own neighbour, perhaps identify repeats and handle them
>> specially (create or use a property ID). Unbalanced panels may also create
>> a selection bias issue (why are some properties only listed sometimes?).
>>
>> So this although promising isn't simple, and getting to a hedonic model
>> may be hard, but not (just) because of spatial autocorrelation. I wouldn't
>> necessarily trust OLS output either, partly because of the repeat property
>> issue.
>>
>> Roger
>>
>>>
>>> I created 54 timedummy variables for each time period available.
>>>
>>> I want to estimate using a hedonic spatial timedummy model the impact of
>>> a variety of characteristics which potentially determine the daily rate
>>> on Airbnb listings through time in New York City (e.g. characteristics
>>> of the listing as number of bedrooms, if the host if professional,
>>> proximity to downtown (New York City Hall) and nearest subway station
>>> from the listing, income per capita, etc.).
>>>
>>> My dependent variable is price (log price, common in the related
>>> literature for hedonic prices).
>>>
>>> The OLS model is done.
>>>
>>> For the spatial model, I am assuming that hosts, when deciding the
>>> pricing of their listings, take not only into account its structural and
>>> location characteristics, but also the prices charged by near listings
>>> with similar characteristics  spatial autocorrelation is then present,
>>> at least spatial dependence is present in the dependent variable.
>>>
>>> As I wrote in my previous post, I was willing to consider the neighbor
>>> itself as a neighbor.
>>>
>>> Parts of my code can be found below:
>>>
>>> ########
>>>
>>> ## packages
>>>
>>> packages_install < function(packages){
>>> new.packages < packages[!(packages %in% installed.packages()[, "Package"])]
>>> if (length(new.packages))
>>> install.packages(new.packages, dependencies = TRUE)
>>> sapply(packages, require, character.only = TRUE)
>>> }
>>>
>>> packages_required < c("bookdown", "cowplot", "data.table", "dplyr", "e1071", "fastDummies", "ggplot2", "ggrepel", "janitor", "kableExtra", "knitr", "lubridate", "nngeo", "plm", "RColorBrewer", "readxl", "scales", "sf", "spdep", "stargazer", "tidyverse")
>>> packages_install(packages_required)
>>>
>>> # Working directory
>>> setwd("C:/Users/User/R")
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> ## shapefile_us
>>>
>>> # Shapefile zips import and Coordinate Reference System (CRS) transformation
>>> # Shapefile download: https://www2.census.gov/geo/tiger/GENZ2018/shp/cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k.zip>>> shapefile_us < sf::st_read(dsn = "Shapefile", layer = "cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k")
>>>
>>> # Columns removal
>>> shapefile_us < shapefile_us %>% select(c(AFFGEOID10, GEOID10, ALAND10, AWATER10))
>>>
>>> # Column rename: ZCTA5CE10
>>> setnames(shapefile_us, old=c("ZCTA5CE10"), new=c("zipcode"))
>>>
>>> # Column class change: zipcode
>>> shapefile_us$zipcode < as.character(shapefile_us$zipcode)
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> ## polygon_nyc
>>>
>>> # Zip code not available in shapefile: 11695
>>> polygon_nyc < shapefile_us %>% filter(zipcode %in% zips_nyc)
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> ## weight_matrix
>>>
>>> # Neighboring polygons: list of neighbors for each polygon (queen contiguity neighbors)
>>> polygon_nyc_nb < poly2nb((polygon_nyc %>% select(borough)), queen=TRUE)
>>>
>>> # Include neighbour itself as a neighbour
>>> # for(i in 1:length(polygon_nyc_nb)){polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]=as.integer(c(i,polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]))}
>>> polygon_nyc_nb < include.self(polygon_nyc_nb)
>>>
>>> # Weights to each neighboring polygon
>>> lw < nb2listw(neighbours = polygon_nyc_nb, style="W", zero.policy=TRUE)
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> ## listings
>>>
>>> # Data import
>>> files < list.files(path="Listings/", pattern=".csv", full.names=TRUE)
>>> listings < setNames(lapply(files, function(x) read.csv(x, stringsAsFactors = FALSE, encoding="UTF8")), files)
>>> listings < mapply(cbind, listings, date_compiled = names(listings))
>>> listings < listings %>% bind_rows
>>>
>>> # Characters removal
>>> listings$date_compiled < gsub("Listings/", "", listings$date_compiled)
>>> listings$date_compiled < gsub(".csv", "", listings$date_compiled)
>>> listings$price < gsub("\\$", "", listings$price)
>>> listings$price < gsub(",", "", listings$price)
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> ## timedummy
>>>
>>> timedummy < sapply("date_compiled_", paste, unique(listings$date_compiled), sep="")
>>> timedummy < paste(timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")
>>> timedummy < gsub("", "_", timedummy)
>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> ## OLS regression
>>>
>>> # Pooled crosssection data  Randomly sampled cross sections of Airbnb listings price at different points in time
>>> regression < plm(formula=as.formula(paste("log_price ~ #some variables", timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")), data=listings, model="pooling", index="id")
>>>
>>> ########
>>>
>>> Some of my id's repeat in multiple time periods.
>>>
>>> I use NYC's zip codes to left join my data with the neighborhood zip code specific characteristics, such as income per capita to that specific zip code, etc.
>>>
>>> Now I want to apply the hedonic model with the timedummy variables.
>>>
>>> Do you know how to proceed? 1) Which package to use (spdep/splm)?; 2) Do I have to join the polygon_nyc (by zip code) to my listings data set, and then calculate the weight matrix "lw"?
>>>
>>> Again, thank you very much for the help provided until now.
>>>
>>> Best regards,
>>> Robert
>>>
>>> ________________________________________
>>> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
>>> Sent: Tuesday, November 5, 2019 15:30
>>> To: Robert R
>>> Cc: [hidden email]
>>> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>>>
>>> On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>>>
>>>> I have a large pooled crosssection data set. I would like to
>>>> estimate/regress using spatial autocorrelation methods. I am assuming
>>>> for now that spatial dependence is present in both the dependent
>>>> variable and the error term. My data set is over a period of 4 years,
>>>> monthly data (54 periods). For this means, I've created a time dummy
>>>> variable for each time period. I also created a weight matrix using the
>>>> functions "poly2nb" and "nb2listw". Now I am trying to figure out a way
>>>> to estimate my model which contains a really big data set. Basically, my
>>>> model is as follows: y = γD + ρW1y + Xβ + λW2u + ε My questions are: 1)
>>>> My spatial weight matrix for the whole data set will be probably a
>>>> enormous matrix with submatrices for each time period itself. I don't
>>>> think it would be possible to calculate this. What I would like to know
>>>> is a way to estimate each time dummy/period separately (to compare
>>>> different periods alone). How to do it? 2) Which package to use: spdep
>>>> or splm? Thank you and best regards, Robert
>>>
>>> Please do not post HTML, only plain text. Almost certainly your model
>>> specification is wrong (SARAR/SAC is always a bad idea if alternatives are
>>> untried). What is your crosssectional size? Using sparse kronecker
>>> products, the "enormous" matrix may not be very big. Does it make any
>>> sense using time dummies (54 x N x T will be mostly zero anyway)? Are most
>>> of the covariates timevarying? Please provide motivation and use area
>>> (preferably with affiliation (your email and user name are not
>>> informative)  this feels like a real estate problem, probably wrongly
>>> specified. You should use splm if time make sense in your case, but if it
>>> really doesn't, simplify your approach, as much of the data will be
>>> subject to very large temporal autocorrelation.
>>>
>>> If this is a continuation of your previous question about using
>>> selfneighbours, be aware that you should not use selfneighbours in
>>> modelling, they are only useful for the GetisOrd local G_i^* measure.
>>>
>>> Roger
>>>
>>>>
>>>> [[alternative HTML version deleted]]
>>>>
>>>> _______________________________________________
>>>> RsigGeo mailing list
>>>> [hidden email]
>>>> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo>>>
>>> 
>>> Roger Bivand
>>> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
>>> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
>>> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
>>> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140>>> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>>>
>>
>> 
>> Roger Bivand
>> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
>> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
>> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
>> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140>> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>>
>
> 
> Roger Bivand
> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>

Roger Bivand
Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
https://orcid.org/0000000323926140https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en_______________________________________________
RsigGeo mailing list
[hidden email]
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo

Administrator

On Sun, 10 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
> Dear Roger,
>
> Again, thank you for your answer. I read the material provided and
> decided that Hierarchical Spatial Autoregressive (HSAR) could be the
> right model for me.
>
> I indeed have the precise latitude and longitude information for all my
> listings for NYC.
>
> I created a stratified sample (group = zipcode) with 22172 (1%) of my
> observations called listings_sample and tried to replicate the hsar
> model, please see below.
>
> For now W = NULL, because otherwise I would have a 22172 x 22172 matrix.
Unless you know definitely that you want to relate the response to its
lagged value, you do not need this. Do note that the matrix is very
sparse, so could be fitted without difficulty with ML in a crosssectional
model.
>
> You recommended then to introduce a Markov random field (MRF) random
> effect (RE) at the zipcode level, but I did not understand it so well.
> Could you develop a litte more?
>
Did you read the development in
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spasta.2017.01.002? It is explained there, and
includes code for fitting the Beijing housing parcels data se from HSAR
with many other packages (MCMC, INLA, hglm, etc.). I guess that you should
try to create a model that works on a single borough, sing the zipcodes
in that borough as a proxy for unobserved neighbourhood effects. Try for
example using lme4::lmer() with only a zipcode IID random effect, see if
the hedonic estimates are similar to lm(), and leave adding an MRF RE
(with for example mgcv::gam() or hglm::hglm()) until you have a working
testbed. Then advance stepbystep from there.
You still have not said how many repeat lettings you see  it will affect
the way you specify your model.
Roger
> ##############
> library(spdep)
> library(HSAR)
> library(dplyr)
> library(splitstackshape)
>
>
> # Stratified sample per zipcode (size = 1%) listings_sample <
> splitstackshape::stratified(indt = listings, group = "zipcode", size =
> 0.01)
>
> # Removing zipcodes from polygon_nyc which are not observable in
> listings_sample polygon_nyc_listings < polygon_nyc %>% filter(zipcode
> %in% c(unique(as.character(listings_sample$zipcode))))
>
>
> ## Random effect matrix (N by J)
>
> # N: 22172
> # J: 154
>
> # Arrange listings_sample by zipcode (ascending)
> listings_sample < listings_sample %>% arrange(zipcode)
>
> # Count number of listings per zipcode
> MM < listings_sample %>% st_drop_geometry() %>% group_by(zipcode) %>% summarise(count = n()) %>% as.data.frame()
> # sum(MM$count)
>
> # N by J nulled matrix creation
> Delta < matrix(data = 0, nrow = nrow(listings_sample), ncol = dim(MM)[1])
>
> # The total number of neighbourhood
> Uid < rep(c(1:dim(MM)[1]), MM[,2])
>
> for(i in 1:dim(MM)[1]) {
> Delta[Uid==i,i] < 1
> }
> rm(i)
>
> Delta < as(Delta,"dgCMatrix")
>
>
> ## Higherlevel spatial weights matrix or neighbourhood matrix (J by J)
>
> # Neighboring polygons: list of neighbors for each polygon (queen contiguity neighbors)
> polygon_nyc_nb < poly2nb(polygon_nyc_listings, row.names = polygon_nyc$zipcode, queen = TRUE)
>
> # Include neighbour itself as a neighbour
> polygon_nyc_nb < include.self(polygon_nyc_nb)
>
> # Spatial weights matrix for nb
> polygon_nyc_nb_matrix < nb2mat(neighbours = polygon_nyc_nb, style = "W", zero.policy = NULL)
> M < as(polygon_nyc_nb_matrix,"dgCMatrix")
>
>
> ## Fit HSAR SAR upper level random effect
> model < as.formula(log_price ~ guests_included + minimum_nights)
>
> betas = coef(lm(formula = model, data = listings_sample))
> pars = list(rho = 0.5, lambda = 0.5, sigma2e = 2.0, sigma2u = 2.0, betas = betas)
>
> m_hsar < hsar(model, data = listings_sample, W = NULL, M = M, Delta = Delta, burnin = 5000, Nsim = 10000, thinning = 1, parameters.start = pars)
>
> ##############
>
> Thank you and best regards
> Robert
>
> ________________________________________
> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
> Sent: Friday, November 8, 2019 13:29
> To: Robert R
> Cc: [hidden email]
> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>
> On Fri, 8 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>
>> Dear Roger,
>>
>> Thank you for your answer.
>>
>> I successfully used the function nb2blocknb() for a smaller dataset.
>>
>> But for a dataset of over 2 million observations, I get the following
>> error: "Error: cannot allocate vector of size 840 Kb".
>
> I don't think the observations are helpful. If you have repeat lets in the
> same property in a given month, you need to handle that anyway. I'd go for
> making the modelling exercise work (we agree that this is not panel data,
> right?) on a small subset first. I would further argue that you need a
> multilevel approach rather than spdep::nb2blocknb(), with a zipcode IID
> RE. You could very well take (stratified) samples per zipcode to represent
> your data. Once that works, introduce an MRF RE at the zipcode level,
> where you do know relative position. Using SARAR is going to be a waste of
> time unless you can geocode the letting addresses. A multilevel approach
> will work. Having big data in your case with no useful location
> information per observation is just adding noise and oversmoothing, I'm
> afraid. The approach used in https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spasta.2017.01.002> will work, also when you sample the within zipcode lets, given a split
> into training and test sets, and making CV possible.
>
> Roger
>
>>
>> I am expecting that at least 500.000 observations will be dropped due
>> the lack of values for the chosen variables for the regression model, so
>> probably I will filter and remove the observations/rows that will not be
>> used anyway  do you know if there is any package that does this
>> automatically, given the variables/columns chosed by me?
>>
>> Or would you recommend me another approach to avoid the above mentioned
>> error?
>>
>> Thank you and best regards,
>> Robert
>>
>> ________________________________________
>> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
>> Sent: Thursday, November 7, 2019 10:13
>> To: Robert R
>> Cc: [hidden email]
>> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>>
>> On Thu, 7 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>>
>>> Dear Roger,
>>>
>>> Many thanks for your help.
>>>
>>> I have an additional question:
>>>
>>> Is it possible to create a "separate" lw (nb2listw) (with different
>>> rownumbers) from my data set? For now, I am taking my data set and
>>> merging with the sf object polygon_nyc with the function
>>> "merge(polygon_nyc, listings, by=c("zipcode" = "zipcode"))", so I create
>>> a huge n x n matrix (depending of the size of my data set).
>>>
>>> Taking the polygon_nyc alone and turning it to a lw (weights list)
>>> object has only n = 177.
>>>
>>> Of course running
>>>
>>> spatialreg::lagsarlm(formula=model, data = listings_sample,
>>> spatialreg::polygon_nyc_lw, tol.solve=1.0e10)
>>>
>>> does not work ("Input data and weights have different dimensions").
>>>
>>> The only option is to take my data set, merge it to my polygon_nyc (by
>>> zipcode) and then create the weights list lw? Or there another option?
>>
>> I think we are getting more clarity. You do not know the location of the
>> lettings beyond their zipcode. You do know the boundaries of the zipcode
>> areas, and can create a neighbour object from these boundaries. You then
>> want to treat all the lettings in a zipcode area i as neighbours, and
>> additionally lettings in zipcode areas neighbouring i as neighbours of
>> lettings in i. This is the data structure that motivated the
>> spdep::nb2blocknb() function:
>>
>> https://rspatial.github.io/spdep/reference/nb2blocknb.html>>
>> Try running the examples to get a feel for what is going on.
>>
>> I feel that most of the variability will vanish in the very large numbers
>> of neighbours, oversmoothing the outcomes. If you do not have locations
>> for the lettings themselves, I don't think you can make much progress.
>>
>> You could try a linear mixed model (or gam with a spatially structured
>> random effect) with a temporal and a spatial random effect. See the HSAR
>> package, articles by Dong et al., and maybe
>> https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spasta.2017.01.002 for another survey. Neither
>> this nor Dong et al. handle spatiotemporal settings. MRF spatial random
>> effects at the zipcode level might be a way forward, together with an IID
>> random effect at the same level (equivalent to sefneighbours).
>>
>> Hope this helps,
>>
>> Roger
>>
>>>
>>> Best regards,
>>> Robert
>>>
>>> ________________________________________
>>> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
>>> Sent: Wednesday, November 6, 2019 15:07
>>> To: Robert R
>>> Cc: [hidden email]
>>> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>>>
>>> On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>>>
>>>> Dear Roger,
>>>>
>>>> Thank you for your reply. I disabled HTML; my emails should be now in
>>>> plain text.
>>>>
>>>> I will give a better context for my desired outcome.
>>>>
>>>> I am taking Airbnb's listings information for New York City available
>>>> on: http://insideairbnb.com/getthedata.html>>>>
>>>> I save every listings.csv.gz file available for NYC (201501 to 201909)
>>>>  in total, 54 files/time periods  as a YYYYMMDD.csv file into a
>>>> Listings/ folder. When importing all these 54 files into one single data
>>>> set, I create a new "date_compiled" variable/column.
>>>>
>>>> In total, after the data cleansing process, I have a little more 2
>>>> million observations.
>>>
>>> You have repeat lettings for some, but not all properties. So this is at
>>> best a very unbalanced panel. For those properties with repeats, you may
>>> see temporal movement (trend/seasonal).
>>>
>>> I suggest (strongly) taking a single borough or even zipcode with some
>>> hindreds of properties, and working from there. Do not include the
>>> observation as its own neighbour, perhaps identify repeats and handle them
>>> specially (create or use a property ID). Unbalanced panels may also create
>>> a selection bias issue (why are some properties only listed sometimes?).
>>>
>>> So this although promising isn't simple, and getting to a hedonic model
>>> may be hard, but not (just) because of spatial autocorrelation. I wouldn't
>>> necessarily trust OLS output either, partly because of the repeat property
>>> issue.
>>>
>>> Roger
>>>
>>>>
>>>> I created 54 timedummy variables for each time period available.
>>>>
>>>> I want to estimate using a hedonic spatial timedummy model the impact of
>>>> a variety of characteristics which potentially determine the daily rate
>>>> on Airbnb listings through time in New York City (e.g. characteristics
>>>> of the listing as number of bedrooms, if the host if professional,
>>>> proximity to downtown (New York City Hall) and nearest subway station
>>>> from the listing, income per capita, etc.).
>>>>
>>>> My dependent variable is price (log price, common in the related
>>>> literature for hedonic prices).
>>>>
>>>> The OLS model is done.
>>>>
>>>> For the spatial model, I am assuming that hosts, when deciding the
>>>> pricing of their listings, take not only into account its structural and
>>>> location characteristics, but also the prices charged by near listings
>>>> with similar characteristics  spatial autocorrelation is then present,
>>>> at least spatial dependence is present in the dependent variable.
>>>>
>>>> As I wrote in my previous post, I was willing to consider the neighbor
>>>> itself as a neighbor.
>>>>
>>>> Parts of my code can be found below:
>>>>
>>>> ########
>>>>
>>>> ## packages
>>>>
>>>> packages_install < function(packages){
>>>> new.packages < packages[!(packages %in% installed.packages()[, "Package"])]
>>>> if (length(new.packages))
>>>> install.packages(new.packages, dependencies = TRUE)
>>>> sapply(packages, require, character.only = TRUE)
>>>> }
>>>>
>>>> packages_required < c("bookdown", "cowplot", "data.table", "dplyr", "e1071", "fastDummies", "ggplot2", "ggrepel", "janitor", "kableExtra", "knitr", "lubridate", "nngeo", "plm", "RColorBrewer", "readxl", "scales", "sf", "spdep", "stargazer", "tidyverse")
>>>> packages_install(packages_required)
>>>>
>>>> # Working directory
>>>> setwd("C:/Users/User/R")
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> ## shapefile_us
>>>>
>>>> # Shapefile zips import and Coordinate Reference System (CRS) transformation
>>>> # Shapefile download: https://www2.census.gov/geo/tiger/GENZ2018/shp/cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k.zip>>>> shapefile_us < sf::st_read(dsn = "Shapefile", layer = "cb_2018_us_zcta510_500k")
>>>>
>>>> # Columns removal
>>>> shapefile_us < shapefile_us %>% select(c(AFFGEOID10, GEOID10, ALAND10, AWATER10))
>>>>
>>>> # Column rename: ZCTA5CE10
>>>> setnames(shapefile_us, old=c("ZCTA5CE10"), new=c("zipcode"))
>>>>
>>>> # Column class change: zipcode
>>>> shapefile_us$zipcode < as.character(shapefile_us$zipcode)
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> ## polygon_nyc
>>>>
>>>> # Zip code not available in shapefile: 11695
>>>> polygon_nyc < shapefile_us %>% filter(zipcode %in% zips_nyc)
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> ## weight_matrix
>>>>
>>>> # Neighboring polygons: list of neighbors for each polygon (queen contiguity neighbors)
>>>> polygon_nyc_nb < poly2nb((polygon_nyc %>% select(borough)), queen=TRUE)
>>>>
>>>> # Include neighbour itself as a neighbour
>>>> # for(i in 1:length(polygon_nyc_nb)){polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]=as.integer(c(i,polygon_nyc_nb[[i]]))}
>>>> polygon_nyc_nb < include.self(polygon_nyc_nb)
>>>>
>>>> # Weights to each neighboring polygon
>>>> lw < nb2listw(neighbours = polygon_nyc_nb, style="W", zero.policy=TRUE)
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> ## listings
>>>>
>>>> # Data import
>>>> files < list.files(path="Listings/", pattern=".csv", full.names=TRUE)
>>>> listings < setNames(lapply(files, function(x) read.csv(x, stringsAsFactors = FALSE, encoding="UTF8")), files)
>>>> listings < mapply(cbind, listings, date_compiled = names(listings))
>>>> listings < listings %>% bind_rows
>>>>
>>>> # Characters removal
>>>> listings$date_compiled < gsub("Listings/", "", listings$date_compiled)
>>>> listings$date_compiled < gsub(".csv", "", listings$date_compiled)
>>>> listings$price < gsub("\\$", "", listings$price)
>>>> listings$price < gsub(",", "", listings$price)
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> ## timedummy
>>>>
>>>> timedummy < sapply("date_compiled_", paste, unique(listings$date_compiled), sep="")
>>>> timedummy < paste(timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")
>>>> timedummy < gsub("", "_", timedummy)
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> ## OLS regression
>>>>
>>>> # Pooled crosssection data  Randomly sampled cross sections of Airbnb listings price at different points in time
>>>> regression < plm(formula=as.formula(paste("log_price ~ #some variables", timedummy, sep = "", collapse = " + ")), data=listings, model="pooling", index="id")
>>>>
>>>> ########
>>>>
>>>> Some of my id's repeat in multiple time periods.
>>>>
>>>> I use NYC's zip codes to left join my data with the neighborhood zip code specific characteristics, such as income per capita to that specific zip code, etc.
>>>>
>>>> Now I want to apply the hedonic model with the timedummy variables.
>>>>
>>>> Do you know how to proceed? 1) Which package to use (spdep/splm)?; 2) Do I have to join the polygon_nyc (by zip code) to my listings data set, and then calculate the weight matrix "lw"?
>>>>
>>>> Again, thank you very much for the help provided until now.
>>>>
>>>> Best regards,
>>>> Robert
>>>>
>>>> ________________________________________
>>>> From: Roger Bivand < [hidden email]>
>>>> Sent: Tuesday, November 5, 2019 15:30
>>>> To: Robert R
>>>> Cc: [hidden email]
>>>> Subject: Re: [RsigGeo] Spatial Autocorrelation Estimation Method
>>>>
>>>> On Tue, 5 Nov 2019, Robert R wrote:
>>>>
>>>>> I have a large pooled crosssection data set. I would like to
>>>>> estimate/regress using spatial autocorrelation methods. I am assuming
>>>>> for now that spatial dependence is present in both the dependent
>>>>> variable and the error term. My data set is over a period of 4 years,
>>>>> monthly data (54 periods). For this means, I've created a time dummy
>>>>> variable for each time period. I also created a weight matrix using the
>>>>> functions "poly2nb" and "nb2listw". Now I am trying to figure out a way
>>>>> to estimate my model which contains a really big data set. Basically, my
>>>>> model is as follows: y = γD + ρW1y + Xβ + λW2u + ε My questions are: 1)
>>>>> My spatial weight matrix for the whole data set will be probably a
>>>>> enormous matrix with submatrices for each time period itself. I don't
>>>>> think it would be possible to calculate this. What I would like to know
>>>>> is a way to estimate each time dummy/period separately (to compare
>>>>> different periods alone). How to do it? 2) Which package to use: spdep
>>>>> or splm? Thank you and best regards, Robert
>>>>
>>>> Please do not post HTML, only plain text. Almost certainly your model
>>>> specification is wrong (SARAR/SAC is always a bad idea if alternatives are
>>>> untried). What is your crosssectional size? Using sparse kronecker
>>>> products, the "enormous" matrix may not be very big. Does it make any
>>>> sense using time dummies (54 x N x T will be mostly zero anyway)? Are most
>>>> of the covariates timevarying? Please provide motivation and use area
>>>> (preferably with affiliation (your email and user name are not
>>>> informative)  this feels like a real estate problem, probably wrongly
>>>> specified. You should use splm if time make sense in your case, but if it
>>>> really doesn't, simplify your approach, as much of the data will be
>>>> subject to very large temporal autocorrelation.
>>>>
>>>> If this is a continuation of your previous question about using
>>>> selfneighbours, be aware that you should not use selfneighbours in
>>>> modelling, they are only useful for the GetisOrd local G_i^* measure.
>>>>
>>>> Roger
>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> [[alternative HTML version deleted]]
>>>>>
>>>>> _______________________________________________
>>>>> RsigGeo mailing list
>>>>> [hidden email]
>>>>> https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo>>>>
>>>> 
>>>> Roger Bivand
>>>> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
>>>> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
>>>> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
>>>> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140>>>> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>>>>
>>>
>>> 
>>> Roger Bivand
>>> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
>>> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
>>> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
>>> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140>>> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>>>
>>
>> 
>> Roger Bivand
>> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
>> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
>> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
>> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140>> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>>
>
> 
> Roger Bivand
> Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
> Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
> voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
> https://orcid.org/0000000323926140> https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en>

Roger Bivand
Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics,
Helleveien 30, N5045 Bergen, Norway.
voice: +47 55 95 93 55; email: [hidden email]
https://orcid.org/0000000323926140https://scholar.google.no/citations?user=AWeghB0AAAAJ&hl=en_______________________________________________
RsigGeo mailing list
[hidden email]
https://stat.ethz.ch/mailman/listinfo/rsiggeo
Roger Bivand
Department of Economics
Norwegian School of Economics
Helleveien 30
N5045 Bergen, Norway

